How to Use TCP Effectively

by Warren Young

Newcomers to network programming almost always run into problems early on where it looks like the network or the TCP/IP stack is munging your data. This usually comes as quite a shock, because the newcomer is usually told just before this that TCP is a reliable data transport protocol. In fact, TCP and Winsock are quite reliable if you use them properly. This tutorial will discuss the most common problems people come across when learning to use TCP.

Problem 1: Packets Are Illusions

This problem comes up in various guises:

I think that understanding this issue is one of TCP/IP’s rites of passage.

The core concept that you must grasp is that TCP is a stream protocol. This means that if you send 100 bytes, the receiving end could receive all 100 bytes at once, or 100 separate single bytes, or four 25-byte chunks. Even more confusing, the receiver could receive that 100 byte block plus some data from the previous send and some from the succeeding send.

So, you ask, how can you make a program receive whole packets only?

The easiest method is to prefix each packet with a length value. For example, you could prefix every packet with a 2-byte unsigned integer that tells how long the packet is. Length prefixes are most effective when the data in each protocol packet has no particular structure, such as raw binary data. See this example for code that reads length-prefixed packets from a TCP stream.

Another method for setting up packets on top of a stream protocol is called “delimiting.” Each packet you send in such a scheme is followed by a unique delimiter. The trick is to think of a good delimiter; it must be a character or string of characters that will never occur inside a packet. Some good examples of delimited protocols are NNTP, POP3, and SMTP, all of which use a carriage-return/line-feed ("CRLF") pair as their delimiter. Delimiting generally only works well with text-based protocols, because by design they limit themselves to a subset of all the legal characters; that leaves plenty of possible delimiters to choose from.

It’s also possible to have a mixed approach. HTTP, for example, has CRLF-delimited headers, one of which can be "Content-length", which is a length prefix for the data following the headers.

Of these two methods, I prefer length-prefixing, because delimiting requires your program to blindly read until it finds the end of the packet, whereas length prefixing lets the program start dealing with the packet just as soon as the length prefix comes in. On the other hand, delimiting schemes lend themselves to flexibility, if you design the protocol like a computer language; this implies that your protocols parsers will be complex.

There are a couple of other concerns for properly handling packets atop TCP. First, always check the return value of recv(), which indicates how many bytes it placed in your buffer — it may well return fewer bytes than you expect. Second, don’t try to peek into the Winsock stack’s buffers to see if a complete packet has arrived. For various reasons, peeking causes problems. Instead, read all the data directly into your application’s buffers and process it there.

Problem 2: Byte Ordering

You have undoubtedly noticed all the ntohs() and htonl() calls required in Winsock programming, but you might not know why they are required. The reason is that there are two common ways of storing integers on a computer: big-endian and little-endian. Big-endian numbers are stored with the most significant byte in the lowest memory location ("big-end first"), whereas little-endian systems reverse this. Obviously two computers must agree on a common number format if they are to communicate, so the TCP/IP specification defines a “network byte order” that the headers (and thus Winsock) all use.

The end result is, if you are sending bare integers as part of your network protocol, and the receiving end is on a platform that uses a different integer representation, it will perceive the data as garbled. To fix this, follow the lead of the TCP protocol and use network byte order, always.

The same principles apply to other platform-specific data formats, such as floating-point values. Winsock does not define functions to create platform-neutral representations of data other than integers, but there is a protocol called the External Data Representation (XDR) which does handle this. XDR formalizes a platform-independent way for two computers to send each other various types of data. XDR is simple enough that you can probably implement it yourself; alternately, you might take a look at the Libraries page to find libraries that implement the XDR protocol.

For what it’s worth, network byte order is big-endian, though you should never take advantage of this fact. Some programmers working on big-endian machines ignore byte ordering issues, but this makes your code non-portable, and it can become a bad habit that will bite you later. The most common little-endian CPUs are the Intel x86 and the Digital Alpha. Most everything else is big-endian. There are a few "bi-endian" devices that can operate in either mode, like the PowerPC and the HP PA-RISC 8000. Most PowerPCs always run in big-endian mode, however, and I suspect that the same is true of the PA-RISC.

Problem 3: Structure Padding

To illustrate the structure padding problem, consider this C declaration:

                struct foo {
                    char a;
                    int b;
                    char c;
                } foo_instance;

Assuming 32-bit ints, you might guess that the structure occupies 6 bytes, but this is not so. For efficiency reasons, compilers "pad" structures to align the data members in a way that is convenient for the CPU. Most CPUs can access 32-bit integers faster if they are at addresses evenly divisible by 4, so the above structure would probably take up 12 bytes on these systems. This issue rears its head when you try to send a structure over Winsock whole, like this:

                send(sd, (char*)&foo_instance, sizeof(foo), 0);

Unless the receiving program was compiled on the same machine architecture with the same compiler and the same compiler options, you have no guarantee that the other machine will receive the data correctly.

The solution is to always send structures “packed” by sending the data members one at a time. You can force your compiler to pack the structures for you, with a resulting speed penalty in the code that accesses those structures. Visual C++ can do this with the /Zp command line option or the #pragma pack directive, and Borland C++ can do this with the -a command line option. Keep the byte ordering problem in mind, however: if you send a packed structure in place, be sure to reorder its bytes properly before you send it.

The Moral of the Story

Trust Winsock to send your data correctly, but don’t assume that it works the way you think that it ought to!

Copyright © 1998-2004 by Warren Young. All rights reserved.


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